Holocaust Survivors and Remembrance Project: "Forget You Not".


I Survived

the 20th Century Holocaust



"Forget You Not"™:
H o l o c a u s t   S u r v i v o r s   a n d   R e m e m b r a n c e   P r o j e c t
- Part IV -
T A B L E   O F   C O N T E N T S

iSurvived.org >
< ForgetYouNot.org >


Holocaust snapshots


Courtesy of The Danish Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies
<holocaust-uddannelse.dk>     <holocaust-education.dk>

The Holocaust was "the ultimate crime against humanity"
Germany's Foreign Minister Joschka Fischer

The Nazi Holocaust remains a stark and terrible warning of the depths to which humankind can descend... 
The Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr George Carey

IV. An Introduction to Holocaust Studies, Anti-Semitism and Related Topics

Willy Brandt's Silent Apology
Chancellor Willy Brandt confronting the Holocaust

On December 7, 1970, while in Warsaw for a commemorative service honoring the participants of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, the German Chancellor Willy Brandt kneels in front of the Monument, in an apparent gesture of apology, repentance, and reconciliation.

Photo Credit: <dw-world.de/dw/article/0,2144,2144598,00.html>

German Chancellor,
Schroeder: I Express my Shame
January 25, 2005.

The Yellow Star:
The Persecution of the Jews in Europe 1933-1945

The deportation of Dutch Jewry was
a "pitch-black" chapter in Dutch history.
Prime Minister Jan Peter Balkenende,
at Yad Vashem, March 2005


1. Pre-Holocaust Studies
Little Polish Boy
 2. Holocaust Studies

--Defining the Holocaust
Origin of Holocaust Word
--JewishGen's Databases
--T4 Holocaust
Jewish Resistance
Holland and the Holocaust
Italy and Treatment of Jews
--Romaniania During Holocaust
--Romani/Gypsy Holocaust
--Gay Holocaust
Operation Reinhard
The Holocaust in Arab Lands
3. The Ugly Face of Anti-Semitism

The Anti-Semitic Poland
--The New Anti-Semitism:
Subtle and Coded

Vatican and the Holocaust

--A Papal Apology
Questioning the
Protestant Church of Reconciliation at Dachau
--Questioning the Silence of God
5. Other Victims and Intended Victims of the Nazi Era
6. Comprehensive List of Holocaust Study Sources

War Crimes and Holocaust Related Trials

--Nuremberg Trials
8. Holocaust Denial on Trial
9. Post Holocaust Issues

--The Sinister Face of "Neutrality"
10. Myths, Unfounded Stories, and Concocted Representations About the Holocaust
"When you study the Holocaust,
you are studying the highest level of organized hate in the history of mankind."
John Conway, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus of History at the University of British Columbia, Canada,
Director of the Association of Contemporary Church Historians


1. Pre-Holocaust Studies

Menorah on the Arch of Titus

   The Israeli Coat of Arms features the Menorah, the candelabra used in the ancient Temple in Jerusalem. It, along with other Temple artifacts, was captured almost two millennia ago by the Romans during their siege of Jerusalem.
   According to the historian Flavius Josephus, a Jew who lived at the time of the Romans, "Most of the spoils that were carried were heaped up indiscriminately, but more prominent than all the rest were those captured in the Temple at Jerusalem - a golden table weighing several hundred weight, and a lampstand similarly made of gold but differently constructed from those we normally use. The central shaft was fixed to a base, and from it extended slender branches placed like the prongs of a trident, and with the end of each one forged into a lamp: these numbered seven, signifying the honour paid to that number by the Jews."
(Josephus, The Jewish War, G.A. Williamson, translator, Penguin, 1959.)
   The Arch of Titus in Rome has on it a carving depicting the spoils of the Temple - including the Menorah - being carried triumphantly through Rome.

The Menorah on the Arch of Titus, Rome, Italy.

Courtesy of Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs  




 2. Holocaust Studies

Holocaust Studies

Holocaust Studies

Does the Holocaust matters?


  • Why Study the Holocaust?

  • United States
    Holocaust Encyclopedia
    Holocaust Memorial Museum

  • The Holocaust Education Program Resource Guide

    "When you study the Holocaust,
    you are studying
    the highest level of organized hate
    in the history of mankind."
    John Conway, Ph.D. 

    Understanding the Holocaust leads to understanding hate. Studying the rise of the Nazis and their extermination of the Jews and other social undesirables is an exploration into how ordinary people can, through mass persuasion and social structural constraints, be led into committing genocide, the ultimate horror in human behavior. [Drs. Carol & Sam Edelman, California State University, Chico, USA]

    Jews Not Wanted Here
    Jews Not Wanted
    Signs excluding Jews, such as the sign shown here, were posted in public places (including parks, theaters, movie houses, and restaurants) throughout Nazi Germany.
  • From Yad Vashem:
    Basic Bibliography of the Holocaust
  • From Simon Wiesenthal Center:
    The Holocaust, 1933-1945











    Nazi Germany, 1933-1938











    • The Courage To Remember The Holocaust 1933-1945
    • Why The Jews? The Patterns of Persecution
    • 1933: German Jewish Life Before The Nazis
    • The "Jewish Question": Nazi Policy 1933-1939
    • The Nightmare Begins: Hitler And The Nazis
    • Nazi Propaganda Slogans, Myths, and Images
    • Nazi Policy: Racism and Terror
    • Concentration Camps 1933-1938
    • In Flight: 1933-1938
    • 1938: The Reich Expands
    • Kristallnacht: The Night of Broken Glass
    • Flight Without Escape: The Jewish Homeless
    • The Deadly Philosophy: Racial Purity
    Moving Toward the "Final Solution", 1939-1941
    • All Necessary Preparations: 1933-1941
    • Eastern Europe: The Arena For Mass Murder
    • Isolate and Destroy: The Jewish Question in Occupied Territory
    • Days of Nightmare: The Lodz Ghetto
    • The World Turned Upside Down: The Warsaw Ghetto
    • Blitzkrieg: The Invasion and Occupation of The West
    • No Escape: Greece and Yugoslavia Fall
    • Whatever Can Be Saved: Daily Life In The Ghettos
    Annihilation in Nazi-occupied Europe, 1941-1945
    • The Final Solution
    • Death By Design: The Invasion of The Soviet Union
    • Einsatzgruppen: Mobile Killing Squads
    • The Final Choice: Resistance
    • Resistance and Revenge: The Warsaw Ghetto Revolt
    • Mass Murder: 1942-1945
    • Theresienstadt: The "Model" Ghetto
    • Like Dying Candles: Concentration Camp Routine
    • The Enduring Spirit: Art of The Holocaust
    • Auschwitz-Birkenau: The Death Factory
    • Auschwitz-Birkenau: Half Hell, Half Lunatic Asylum
    • The Last Agony at Auschwitz: Liberation, January 1945
    • A Righteous Few: Survival in Hiding and Rescue
    • Liberation: The Unmasked Horror
    Liberation - Building New Lives
    • Bitterness and Hope: The Legacy of The Holocaust
    • Crimes Against Humanity: Nazis on Trial
    • Where Now? Where to? The Displaced
    • Revival: Building New Lives
    • Remembrance and Vigilance
    36 Questions About the Holocaust
    ~ From Simon Wiesenthal Learning Center ~


  • The Holocaust --A Guide for Teachers
JewishGen's Holocaust Databases
A collection of databases containing information about Holocaust victims and survivors.
It incorporates nearly 100 datasets which contain over one million entries.


.From The Danish Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies


Why did the Nazis murder the Jews?

The answer to this question is highly debated among historians. Some have stated that it had always been Hitler's plan to exterminate the Jews, while others have perceived the mass murders as a result of a long and curved process, where the Nazi Jewish policy was gradually radicalised.

The Jews' presence in the German-occupied parts of Europe was seen as a problem and a great annoyance. At best, they were to disappear from the face of the earth, so that the Nazis could reach their goal: a Greater Germany free from Jews. Different solutions were tried: voluntary immigration, forced immigration, and several different plans for deportation. Plans surfaced to deport all the Jews to the east, first to eastern Poland, then to Siberia. Serious plans were also developed that included deporting all European Jews to the island of Madagascar, of the east coast of Africa.

All these plans had to be dropped, however, because of the war. At the same time, the Nazis had gained experience with systematic mass murder in the form of the Euthanasia Programme, where physically and psychologically disabled were killed by the state. This constituted the crossing of an important psychological barrier. Another such barrier was crossed with the beginning of the Germans' incredibly cruel war of extermination against the Soviet Union, which commenced in June 1941. All usual conventions for warfare were dropped at the beginning of this 'the final battle against Judeo-Bolshevism'.

The result of the frustrations with the unsuccessful deportation plans, of the experiences with the euthanasia actions, of the war with the Soviet Union, and not least of the wish to find the 'Final Solution to the Jewish Question' --all these elements lead to the systematic mass murder of approximately 6 million Jews.




.From The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum


What is the Origin of the Word "Holocaust"?

The word holocaust comes from the ancient Greek, olos meaning "whole" and kaustos or kautos meaning "burnt." Appearing as early as the fifth century B.C.E., the term can mean a sacrifice wholly consumed by fire or a great destruction of life, especially by fire.

While the word holocaust, with a meaning of a burnt sacrificial offering, does not have a specifically religious connotation, it appeared widely in religious writings through the centuries, particularly for descriptions of "pagan" rituals involving burnt sacrifices. In secular writings, holocaust most commonly came to mean "a complete or wholesale destruction," a connotation particularly dominant from the late nineteenth century through the nuclear arms race of the mid-twentieth century. During this time, the word was applied to a variety of disastrous events ranging from pogroms against Jews in Russia, to the persecution and murder of Armenians by Turks during World War I, to the attack by Japan on Chinese cities, to large-scale fires where hundreds were killed.

Early references to the Nazi murder of the Jews of Europe continued this usage. As early as 1941, writers occasionally employed the term holocaust with regard to the Nazi crimes against the Jews, but in these early cases, they did not ascribe exclusivity to the term. Instead of "the holocaust," writers referred to "a holocaust," one of many through the centuries. Even when employed by Jewish writers, the term was not reserved to a single horrific event but retained its broader meaning of large-scale destruction. For example:

You are meeting at a time of great tragedy for our people. In our ... deep sense of mourning for those who have fallen ... we must steel our hearts to go on with our work ... that perhaps a better day will come for those who will survive this holocaust. (Chaim Weizmann, letter to Israel Goldstein, December 24, 1942)

What sheer folly to attempt to rebuild any kind of Jewish life [in Europe] after the holocaust of the last twelve years! (Zachariah Shuster, Commentary, December 1945, p.10)

By the late 1940s, however, a shift was underway. Holocaust (with either a lowercase or capital H) became a more specific term due to its use in Israeli translations of the word sho'ah. This Hebrew word had been used throughout Jewish history to refer to assaults upon Jews, but by the 1940s it was frequently being applied to the Nazis' murder of the Jews of Europe. (Yiddish-speaking Jews used the term churbn, a Yiddish translation of sho'ah.) The equation of holocaust with sho'ah was seen most prominently in the official English translation of the Israeli Declaration of Independence in 1948, in the translated publications of Yad Vashem throughout the 1950s, and in the journalistic coverage of the Adolf Eichmann trial in Israel in 1961.

Such usage strongly influenced the adoption of holocaust as the primary English-language referent to the Nazi slaughter of European Jewry, but the word's connection to the "Final Solution" did not firmly take hold for another two decades. The April 1978 broadcast of the TV movie, Holocaust, based on Gerald Green's book of the same name, and the very prominent use of the term in [United States President] Jimmy Carter's creation of the President's Commission on the Holocaust later that same year, cemented its meaning in the English-speaking world. These events, coupled with the development and creation of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum through the 1980s and 1990s, established the term Holocaust (with a capital H) as the standard referent to the systematic annihilation of European Jewry by Germany's Nazi regime.




A Sonderkommando






Hitler with Antonescu
Ion Antonescu and Hermann Göring
in Vienna, Austria

Hitler [left] greets the Romanian Marshal and Prime Minister Antonescu during Antonescu's January 2, 1943, State visit to Germany.


Holocaust remembranceHolocaust remembrance
Holocaust-Era Mass Grave of Murdered Jews
found in Romania
~November 2010~

Romania Facing Its Past:
Romania and the Holocaust
Romania, After Long Denying the Existence of the Holocaust Within its Territories, Admits its Existence.
The Romanian Newspaper "ZIUA" Carries the Headline "There Was Holocaust"
With the Picture of the Romanian-born Elie Wiesel and the Former Romanian President Ion Iliescu.
The Report of the International Commission on the Holocaust in Romania

Romanian Jews Deported to Ausschwitz

Elisabeth Gersch (née Grunfeld) was born in 1914 in Tirgu-Mures, Transylvania (Romania). She was married to Rudolph and they lived in Deda Bisztra, Romania where Elisabeth was a housewife. In 1936 they had a daughter whom they named Eva (in photograph). During the war, the family lived in the Regin ghetto. Elisabeth and Eva were deported to Auschwitz, where they were gassed in 1944. Elisabeth was 40 and Eva was 8 years old.

The photograph and Pages of Testimony in their memory were submitted to Yad Vashem by Elisabeth's niece Adela Ganea, herself a Holocaust survivor, living in Haifa, Israel.

Memorial Holocaust plaque, Tirgu Mures, Romania

Rabbi Safran

Former Chief Rabbi of Romania,
Alexander Safran dies at 95

A Biographical sketch:
Chief Rabbi of Romania from 1940 to 1947
Humiliation of Jews in Iasi, Romania
Jews in front of the Police Station Building in Iasi, Romania, being forced to scrub the street pavement in cleaning up the Jews blood.
(June 30, 1941.)
To Transnistria
Deportation of Romanian Jews
from Gura Humorului to Transnistria
under the direct orders of Marshal Ion Antonescu


Death Train, Romania, 1941




Death Train, Iasi, Romania, 1941

Holocaust in Romania

The "Death" Train, Iasi (Jassy), Romania (June 1941)
Photo Credit: Archive of the Center for the Study of the History of Romanian Jewry, Bucharest.)

Editor's Note -- In response to those that still claim that the Holocaust did not exist within the territories of Romania, we posted herein one of the many pictures available that is able to refute such a preposterous claim: On the railroad car on the right, we can see the inscription "CFR" standing in the Romanian language for "Caile Ferate Romane" that is the signature-emblem of the Romanian railroad transport.

In Memoriam:
Mass graves from Iasi pogrom, Romania
From Iasi, Romania: USHMM photo credit
A Homage to the 1941 Martyrs of the Yassy (Iasi) Pogrom by Romanian Composer Serban Nichifor
Jewish Romanian women, Holocaust
Jewish women under the guard of Romanian soldiers. Kishenev, summer of 1941.

Nazi hunt yields Romania war crimes suspects
.Radio Romania International: Romania and the Holocaust

From Yad Vashem:

Solidarity and Rescue --Romanian Righteous Among the Nations
Romanian Jewish Museum of Bucharest
(With Selected Romanian Holocaust Web Sites)
Romania Opened in Transylvania its Frst,
Fully Functional Holocaust Memorial Museum on Sept. 11, 2005
Oliver Lustig as one of its keynote speakers)


§ August 2, Each Year §
Romani Extermination
Remembrance Day

Sinti Boy



Serbs and Romanies deported
Serbs and Romanies (Gypsies) who have been rounded up for deportation
are marched to the Kozara and Jasenovac concentration camps.



Houston Holocaust Museum

Homosexual prisoners in Sachsenhausen, 1938
(NARA: 242-HLB-3609-25)



3. The Ugly Face of Anti-Semitism Unleashed with Full Furry Before, During, and After the Holocaust...
Anti-Semitism -- A History of Hate as the World's Longest Hatred

Anti-Semitism, strictly defined as prejudice directed at the Jewish people, has existed in one form or another ever since Judaism's beginnings. Often referred to as the oldest hatred, anti-Semitism originally was based on the mistrust of a religion whose God is invisible and all-powerful. Even today, the anti-Semite uses the word "Jew" not in religious terms, but in social, economic and political contexts. [Florida Holocaust Museum]

Anti-Semitism and Holocaust

   Some Pictures from the Nazi Era that Can Speak Volumes...   
Nazi storm troopers block the entrance to a Jewish-owned store in Berlin.
Their signs read: "Germans, defend yourselves against the Jewish atrocity propaganda, buy only at German shops!" and "Germans, defend yourselves, buy only at German shops!"

(Credit: U.S. National Archives, William Blye Collection, and USHMM)  

The coordinated Nazi vandalism of Kristallnacht ( "The Night of Broken Glass") :
Night of Nov. 9-10, 1938 when Jewish shopwindows were smashed all over Nazi Germany.


Nazi fun
Some Nazi fun

Humiliation of Jews in 1938 Austria
.Humiliation of Jews in Vienna, Austria of 1938

Jewish Polish Children struggling to survive

Largest Synagogue in the World Destroyed During 'Kristallnacht'
Berlin Synagogue

The largest synagogue in the world when completed in 1866, the 'Neue Synagogue' in Berlin was burnt on 'Kristallnacht', 9th of November 1938, and further destroyed by air raids in 1943. The synagogue, built in elaborate Neo-Moorish style, was one of the most impressive of all 19th century European synagogues, and indeed, the largest synagogue in the world when completed, it seated some 3,200 congregants.The exterior was restored in the late 1980s, and the building reconstructed as a community centre for Berlin's re-emerging community, following the fall of East Germany and communist Soviet Union.



Nazi soldiers
Nazis soldiers having some fun...

Czech Graffiti, Nazi Years
[From Yad Vashem Archives]


The Anti-Semitic Poland and the Holocaust












































From the Current Krakow Church of Poland:
"The Kikes Will Not Continue to Spit on Us."
February 2008


The New Anti-Semitism: Subtle and Coded


   Kings, pharaohs, generals, fuehrers, Moslem extremists, and more have tried to exterminate the Jews for millennia. The Bible predicts the persecution of both Jews and Christians in many Scriptural references, with an intensification in the "end-times." The Arab world fans the flames of anti-Semitism, as well as much of Europe and even Canada.
   It has become more obvious in America with the push for a Palestinian state. Many, though certainly not all, who are pushing in America for a Palestinian state, and particularly on U.S. campuses, have anti-Semitic sentiment.



Simon Wiesenthal, 1992 in Austria
In 1992, the late Simon Wiesenthal at a Jewish cemetery in Eisenstadt, Austria, that
had been vandalized by right-wing extremists.
[European PressPhoto Agency]


Jewish cemetery, France
Neo-Nazi defacement of Jewish cemetery of Brumath, close to Strasbourg, France,
October 31, 2004..

Desecrated Holocaust monument in Odessa
Unidentified people desecrated the Holocaust monument in Odessa, Ukraine late Sunday, February 18, 2007 with red swastikas and with an inscription: "Congratulations on the Holocaust."



4. Vatican and the Holocaust

Hitler and the Church

.Messengers of Christianity During the Holocaust Years

Pius XIISeal of Vatican City



J E R U S A L E M,
26 MARCH 2000
.Krakow Church of 2008 Holds Service Under the Posters Proclaiming
"The Kikes Will Not Continue to Spit on Us."

Bishop Richard Williamson
Bishop Richard Williamson

January 25, 2009:

Pope Benedict Lifts Expulsion of Holocaust Denier, Bishop Richard Williamson

Quotes from bishop Richard Williamson on the Holocaust:

  • ... I believe there were no gas chambers;
  • ... I believe only up to 300,000 Jews perished in the Nazi concentration camps, instead of 6 million;
  • ... I believe that the historical evidence is hugely against 6 million having been deliberately gassed in gas chambers as a deliberate policy of Adolf Hitler.
Pope Removes Ban on British Holocaust Denier Bishop

Forgiveness has its limits...

Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
greets World War II death camp survivor JerzyÝKluger

1998 Vatican Apologies

Polish Church Apology Over The Holocaust

Submitted to The Holy See's Commission for Religious Relations with the Jews
and the International Jewish Committee for Interreligious Consultations
by the International Catholic-Jewish Historical Commission
(October, 2000.) 


An examination of the behavior of the Polish Church leaders in Occupied Poland.
From Yad Vashem --The Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority


"It can be called a drama of history that Jesus, who symbolizes the bond of unity
between Jews and Christians, has all too often become the sign and the origin
of dissension and even violence between these faith communities."

Protestant Church and the Holocaust

Current Focus on Dachau and its Protestant Church of Reconciliation:
A Grotesque Display of Religion on the German Soil or Is it Something Else?


Papal Apology
During March 2000 Pope John Paul II made news by requesting forgiveness in the most significant confession to come from the Vatican. The Pope publicly asked forgiveness for the Church's sins involving Jews, women, heretics, and other maltreated groups. He unequivocally stated, "We forgive and we ask for forgiveness". The Holocaust was not mentioned nor were any other specific events, but simply the acknowledgement of wrongdoing was significant.

 Facing the Burden of German History:
Report Details Catholic Role in Nazi Abuses

Cardinal Karl Lehmann

Der Spiegel, Oct. 20, 1997 on the Vatican and the Holocaust
.Pictures from Der Spiegel of October 20, 1997
that Need No Commentaries

Hitler with Christian Bishops

Vatican support of the Nazis

Hitler with the Bishops... and the Bishops salute to the Nazism...

Christian Apology by Cardinal Adam Maida

French Clergy

May God Have Mercy on Their Silence and Complicity... Forgive them God, or Nobody will...

Questioning the Silence of God During the Holocaust
  • Debating God and the Holocaust: Holocaust Survivors in Search for Faith

  • From Elie Wiesel's book "Night", p. 65
    Yom Kippur: The Day of Atonement

    Night -Elie Wiesel

         Should we fast? The question was hotly debated. To fast would mean a surer, swifter death. We fasted here the whole year round. The whole year was Yom Kippur. But others said that we should fast simply because it was dangerous to do so. We should show God that even here, in this enclosed hell, we were capable of singing His praises.
         I did not fast, mainly to please my father, who had forbidden me to do so. But further, there was no longer any reason why I should fast. I no longer accepted God's silence. As I swallowed my bowl of soup, I saw in the gesture an act of rebellion and protest against Him.
         And I nibbled my crust of bread.
         In the depths of my heart, I felt a great void.

  • An Analysis of Elie Wiesel's Relationship with God
  • Faith in God and Man After Auschwitz: Theological Implications
    Yad Vashem -- by Emil L. Fackenheim

    April 8, 1966

    "God is dead. God remains dead. And we have killed him. How shall we, murderers of all murderers, console ourselves? That which was the holiest and mightiest of all that the world has yet possessed has bled to death under our knives. Who will wipe this blood off us? With what water could we purify ourselves? What festivals of atonement, what sacred games shall we need to invent? Is not the greatness of this deed too great for us? Must we not ourselves become gods simply to be worthy of it?"

    Friedrich Nietzsche 

    Rabbi Richard Rubenstein: The death of God occurred in Auschwitz...


5. Other Victims and Intended Victims of the Nazi Era:

A Comprehensive List of Holocaust Study Sources

Voices from Ravensbrück
Lund University Library

Ravensbrück crematorium

Ravensbrück crematorium

Ravensbrück's Crematorium

7. War Crimes and Holocaust Related Trials:

SS Maria MandelThe Infamous SS Maria Mandel of Auschwitz
at trial in Poland


8. Holocaust Denial on Trial


David Irving, a British Holocaust denier
Deborah Lipstadt, an American Professor and her British publisher, Penguin Books


Denying History


9. Post Holocaust Issues:
"We cannot give evil another chance."
Elie Wiesel

Young Germans after Holocaust



10. Myths, Unfounded Stories, Concocted, Distorted or Incredulous Representations of the Holocaust

--Exposing the Untruth, the Bad, and the Ugly--
"Get history right. Respect the living. Honor the dead."
Art Abramson, Executive Director of the Baltimore Jewish Council
(commenting on the Holocaust impostor Deli Strummer)




Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto


Holocaust Background Information


Heroes and Heroines of the Holocaust


Faces and Voices of Holocaust Survivors


Holocaust Studies and Related Topics


The Holocaust Argumentative Page


Holocaust Selected Readings, Photos, and Items of Interest


Holocaust Selected Books


Descendants of the Holocaust


Holocaust Related News


Holocaust Memorial Drives

Suggestions for further material to be included in here are welcome.


Holocaust Remembrance, Sanctuary, and Beyond ...

"Forget You Not"™..